An unpleasant and economically harmful attendant feature of animal husbandry is the appearance of various fly species in the immediate environment. Flies pester domestic animals confined in closed spaces as well as the ones grazing outside on the open range, yet we need to expect different species to be present in the two different types of animal husbandry.
House flies (Musca domestica) are most commonly found in and around pig pens and poultry yards, whereas the stables of cattle, sheep, and horses are also often visited by stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans). These latter also represent a hardly negligible circumstance for the people working at animal farms and feed yards, as they embody a rather grave problem in their general condition.
Huge quantities of flies in the stables make the animals significantly restless; they act as a distressing factor and decrease gain and feed efficiency as well as milk production.
The ontogenesis of the two species consists of similar stages that are characteristic of flies in general (eggs, larvae, pupae, adult flies); however, their breeding sites significantly differ from one another. The materials necessary for the development of the larvae of house flies are available in the manure of poultry, swine, and cattle, while stable flies lay their eggs in fermenting organic material of left-over feed.
represent a species related to house flies. They mostly occur in rural settlements or farms, and sometimes even get inside the houses to bite people.
Stable fly eggs are laid primarily in stables or in the open, in such places as decaying hay and straw mixed with bigger amounts of wet manure but not in dropped piles of manure. They hatch and pupate for about 1 month and the average adult stable fly lives approximately 2 to 3 weeks. They usually cause a problem in the late summer and during fall because of their high population numbers, and because they feed on blood. They mostly harm cattle but they can also bite people on the legs, the ankles, sometimes on the hands or the head. Their bite can be very painful and they can reach the human skin even through a layer of clothes. In hot weather (the ideal temperature is between 30 and 35 degrees) they eat blood twice a day but, in cooler temperatures, they need a refill only every 2 to 4 days. They cannot go very long without sucking blood, although they stop moving under 16 degrees centigrade and stop feeding if the temperature falls below 12 degrees. These flies are prone to embitter the lives of cattle, horses, sheep, and the people working in their environment alike. They cause considerable damage both from economic and animal health respects, as they never leave the animals alone by constantly bothering them with their bites. They also infect them continuously, as these flies suck the blood of their victims in an unusual fashion: after they have pierced the skin of their hosts and sucked enough of their blood, they fly on to their next victim and mix some of this blood with the blood of the second victim.
may be found feeding and breeding in piles of manure and garbage. There are eight generations of house flies hatched each year. For resting on walls, they tend to prefer a position with their heads looking down.
Their significance from the aspect of public health care is outstanding because they occur most frequently and in the largest numbers as compared to other food-attracted insects.
Common house flies are omnivorous and, since they can ingest only liquefied materials, they need a lot of liquids. Solid materials are liquefied by means of regurgitated saliva or spew. Although they prefer sweet stuff, they also frequent various kinds of organic matter (such as manure, excrement or garbage) not only for the purpose of laying their eggs in them but also for feeding and quenching their thirst.
They are fond of hot weather and sunshine and try to avoid shady and drafty places. They tend to stay outdoors only in very good weather and try to get outside mainly for the purpose of laying eggs. With the help of the creeping disks and sticky hairs located on their legs, house flies can easily move along the ceiling and even glass surfaces. Bacteria move through their alimentary canals unchanged. They defecate on a variety of surfaces (e.g., on food, wall, etc.) about 20 times a day.
As a result of several years of research activities, our company has managed to develop a fly controlling (eliminating) technology that, through the application of a registered pesticide, can completely ensure the achievement of a “hygienically tolerable level” prescribed by the relevant Authorities. The description of our technology very briefly is as follows: We treat every building in the treatment area either by spraying or mechanically, depending on their individual nature. We pay special attention to humidity, the cleanliness of the treated surface and the regular sanitation of the surfaces and air-spaces by the Customer. With the consideration of all these factors, we apply differently formulated pesticides in swineries and in cattle farms, which difference guarantees long-lasting effect. (e.g.: stables, fattening coops, batteries, dropping-boxes, milk-houses, etc.). Our concrete practical experience is that, if our Customers comply with the provisions specified in the fly control contract (which does not represent any extra cost to them), a single treatment can ensure efficient work and the right conditions for its guarantee.
Extreme proliferation of fly populations will not let domestic animals feed or rest properly, which will increase their loss of weight in the summer months, due to the enhancement of stressful and upsetting conditions. This also represents a hardly negligible circumstance for the people working at fly-infested farms and feed yards, as it embodies a rather grave problem in their general condition and mood. Our technology guarantees the “fly-free” condition shown in the illustration, which will result in a better general condition and a more profitable operation for the whole environment.